Cognitive Biases

Family of Biases

Estimation Family

Estimation tasks involve evaluating a quantity. This can be a concrete and measurable quantity (probability, duration, amount of money, etc.) or abstract (the value of a situation, the intensity of an emotion, etc.)

Decision Family

Decision tasks involve choosing one or more option(s) from several alternatives after a period of deliberation.

Memory Family

Memory tasks involve retrieving or recognizing information or content. "Recovery" refers to the recall of information retrieved from memory.

Hypothesis Evaluation Family

Hypothesis evaluation tasks involve examining whether hypotheses are true or false. The term "hypothesis" refers to both formal scientific hypotheses and any informal statement that can be confirmed or refuted with knowledge.

Causal Attribution Family

Causal attribution tasks involve assessing the causality of an event or behavior, i.e., the cause of its origin. When studying an event or behavior, we distinguish between:

  • External causes, which are due to the environment, conditions, context, etc.
  • Internal causes, which are due to individuals (personality traits, abilities, intentions, etc.) who exhibit the behavior or are affected by the event being studied.

Opinion Expression Family

Opinion expression tasks involve responding to questions about one's own beliefs and opinions on moral, political, social, etc., issues.

Miscellaneous Family

This family encompasses biases that could not be classified into any of the previous categories.